Lunes, 20 de noviembre del 2017
Idioma Es Pt En

¿Arquitectos de la desigualdad digital?

Reforma - Jorge Fernando Negrete - 20.03.2017, 06:42
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México lidera la feria de las buenas noticias para los consumidores de servicios de telecomunicaciones.

Las buenas. El Índice de Accesibilidad a Internet (IDA) de A4AI (Alliance for Affordable Internet), evalúa el grado en que los países han puesto en marcha una serie de factores que pueden reducir la estructura de costos de la banda ancha (es decir, los conductores de la asequibilidad). Este año, México se encuentra en segundo lugar entre 58 países analizados de Asia, África y América Latina, el primer lugar es Colombia. México subió siete lugares en el IDA de este año, "en parte gracias a un conjunto de reformas legislativas introducidas en agosto de 2014, que creó un regulador independiente y la mejora de la competencia del mercado", indica la presentación del estudio. Notable síntesis.

La segunda noticia la obsequiaron el IFT, la Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transporte y el Inegi la semana pasada, cuando presentaron la Encuesta Nacional sobre Disponibilidad y Uso de Tecnologías de la Información en los Hogares 2016. Varios son los datos relevantes pero me referiré a éstos: 65.5 millones de personas de seis años o más utilizan Internet; 15.7 millones de hogares (47 por ciento del total nacional) disponen de conexión a Internet; en tanto, los hogares con computadora registraron un aumento de 44.9 por ciento a 45.6 por ciento entre 2015 y 2016. Estos datos, entre otros, como la teledensidad por estados, confirma el crecimiento y avance en el esfuerzo público. Si a ello agregamos los multicitados indicadores que México lidera en América Latina, parecería que la política y la regulación integral de las telecomunicaciones funcionan.

La otra cara. El progreso que tiene México tiene dos caras, la primera está vinculada a la competencia y sus indicadores. A falta de ellos hemos tenido que inferir que la baja de tarifas, la cobertura 4G, la eliminación del roaming nacional e internacional, la notable velocidad de Internet a los que se agrega el indicador de IDA, sugieren que tenemos un abrumador beneficio a los consumidores desde el lado económico y a los ciudadanos desde el lado de los derechos humanos.

Podríamos afirmar que la competencia ha generado una de las mejores sociedades conectadas en América Latina en poco tiempo. Pero estas cifras leídas al revés, indican que 45 millones de mexicanos carecen de Internet, que la mitad de los hogares carece de conexión a banda ancha y que no hemos podido pasar de 90 dispositivos móviles por cada 100 habitantes.

El crecimiento orgánico en materia de cobertura ha sido la moneda de cambio para privilegiar el desarrollo de la competencia y su cabildeo regulatorio. México es el único país en Iberoamérica que no tiene contempladas obligaciones de acceso universal a sus operadores. La competencia es una palabra sexy y políticamente rentable, la cobertura es una monserga que se puede posponer y cuesta.

El problema es que el crecimiento orgánico es progreso lento y el progreso lento quiere decir que millones siguen excluidos. Comparado con América Latina, México tiene una escasa penetración de telefonía móvil. Sólo supera a Cuba y Haití. ¿Cómo se explica esta situación? Considerando los países de esta región, el promedio de penetración es de 121.2 dispositivos por cada 100 habitantes. Destacan los casos de Uruguay, Costa Rica y Argentina que exhiben las tasas más altas de penetración con 160.9, 156.7 y 156.2 por ciento, respectivamente. La baja de tarifas no garantiza el acceso a más usuarios, sino beneficios a los ya conectados. En pocas palabras, la competencia no genera cobertura. Somos arquitectos de una desigualdad digital.

Sin embargo, un mercado concentrado no necesariamente es un factor que impida directamente incrementar el número de conexiones por habitante como lo muestran diversos casos en Iberoamérica. Diez mercados tienen la existencia de operadores con una participación de mercado mayor a 50 por ciento, incluidos Colombia (Claro), Costa Rica (ICE), Guatemala (Tigo), Honduras (Tigo), México (Telcel), Nicaragua (Movistar), Ecuador (Claro), Paraguay (Tigo) y Uruguay (Antel), de los cuales, a excepción de Ecuador, todos superan la penetración en México.

Se deben imponer obligaciones de cobertura a los operadores en las siguientes licitaciones de espectro, se debe fondear nuevamente el programa México Conectado, la separación funcional del preponderante en telecomunicaciones debe resolverse pronto, con viabilidad financiera e incorporarse a la estrategia de cobertura; y la Red compartida debe ser supervisada in extremis en el cumplimiento de sus obligaciones.

El olvido digital de los mexicanos no conectados es inmoral.

 

Analista de telecomunicaciones

 

 
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